Data science is the collection of processes and skills that helps extract meaningful information from huge amounts of raw data. It encompasses a range of tools and techniques including predictive analytics, artificial intelligence natural language processing and visualization of data. Its importance is widely recognized in the world of business, and its practitioners are demanded.
In the present, data science is used in almost every sector and, in some instances, it is central to the strategies and operations of an organization. Data science is helping businesses design stronger marketing campaigns and determine the best time to advertise their products. It helps in reducing financial risks by detecting fraudulent transactions and preventing breakdowns in manufacturing plants and other industrial settings. It also helps block cyber attacks as well as other security threats to IT systems.
For example the algorithms used to monitor users on social media platforms as well as digital billboards are able to determine the shopping habits of a customer and use that data to tailor their marketing messages. This boosts conversion rates of customers, which leads to a higher ROI for marketers.
In the medical field, the ability to analyze and visualize large volumes of patient data has helped doctors come up with new treatments and diagnose diseases more precisely. They also can apply preventive medicine and research treatment options faster.
Data science may be used in a manner that could have serious ethical implications. For instance, the COMPAS Recidivism Risk Score used by law enforcement agencies to predict future criminality is biased against African-Americans, according to ProPublica.